Archeology and dating go hand-in-hand. Historical archeologists have an advantage when it comes to dating because of the written historical record. When we study a site, we also study the documents associated with the site. For Historical archeologists, ceramics are a diagnostic tool for dating because many English ceramic types can be dated to within 5 or so years of their manufacture. Access to this knowledge led to something called the Mean Ceramic Date. Think about the things you own. Do you have antiques?
17th and 18th Century Marked Clay Tobacco Pipes From Ferryland, NL
The skill and experience of the individual undertaking the work will play a large part in determining how accurate and reliable any assessment of dating is, and specialist advice should certainly be taken when dealing with large assemblages or those where the pipe dating is fundamental to the excavated deposits. But it is certainly possible for a good assessment of date to be made by considering the key characteristics of any given pipe or pipe assemblage, guidelines for which are given below.
They can be used to indicate whether a context group is likely to contain residual material, or whether it represents a coherent and potentially tightly dated group. They can also be used to check any dates provided by associated bowl forms, marks or decoration, which can be especially useful for smaller contexts where only a few such pieces are present. There are always exceptions but, in broad terms, stems can usually be allocated to one of three general date ranges by assessing their form, stem bore, fabric and finish.
As a result, fragments usually show a clear taper along their length and can be quite chunky if the fragment comes from near the bowl.
pipe-stem dating: CATEGORY: technique calculating the date of American Colonial assemblages based on the variation in hole diameters in clay pipe stems.
Stem stamps are only rarely found. The ones featured in the picture here were made in Bristol as well as the Isle of Wight. There were Italian pipe makers, make no mistake, but these workshops and factories seemed to focus on maintaining high production numbers rather than on the quality of the product. Another theory among archeologists for the decrease in bore diameters is that tobacco became more refined, meaning the pieces of tobacco were smaller.
Finds of this period are very frequent in gardens as the ‘s was a peak time for production. Charles Dickens, A Negro, Sailor. A lot of care goes into the few pieces lucky enough to make the cut; to end up with a certain number of Autographs, for instance, means that many, many more will be made, and only the few will be selected. He eventually left the company in I believe after the disappointing Dunhill acquisition and then moved to Upshall, or more correctly, to the Tilshead Pipe Co.
Dunhill sells the Charatan to J. Late Seventeenth to Late Eighteenth Century Stems Pipes during this period normally had quite long stems but were thinner at the bowl junction than previously.
No one knows for sure who made the first clay pipes. The idea of smoking tobacco came from the American Indian, who had long fashioned their own clay pipes. These, no doubt served as a model for later pipe development.
Pieces of pipe-stem are easy to pick up in certain areas, complete bowls less so.. but spend enough time on the first type of mud featured.
The clay tobacco pipe is an exceptional tool for dating archaeological sites from the historic period because it has undergone a series of stylistic changes over its history of production. The importance of these stylistic changes becomes apparent when one considers that the fragile nature and inexpensive cost of clay pipes resulted in their being smoked, broken and discarded all within the period of a year or two. A large part of the research on clay pipes has dealt with the identification of marks with which makers identified their product.
If a particular mark and pipe bowl can be identified, then so can its place of origin, the date range within which it was made and therefore, a basic time frame for when it was deposited. This article deals specifically with the marked clay tobacco pipes excavated from Ferryland, NL, encompassing examples from both the 17th and 18th centuries.
The origins of the clay tobacco pipe date back to the s when tobacco smoking first became fashionable in England. According to William Harrison “In these daies the taking-in of the smoke of the Indian herbe called ‘Tobaco’ by an instrument formed like a little ladell, whereby it passeth from the mouth into the head and stomach, is gretlie taken-up and used in England” Harrison as cited in Oswald It is not known for certain whether these early smoking instruments were made of clay, but by the s, there is specific reference to the use of clay pipes fashioned for tobacco smoking Oswald By the early part of the 17th century, the clay tobacco pipe industry began to develop in many local centres throughout Britain and in many parts of the Netherlands.
Most of these locally-made clay pipes had a limited distribution within their area of manufacture but in the cases of port towns and overseas trading centres, some clay pipes were shipped to the North American colonies. These early pipes typically had a short stem with a large bore diameter and a small “acorn” shaped, rouletted bowl that angled away from the smoker. As the tobacco pipe evolved throughout the 17th century, its stem became longer, its bore size progressively smaller and its bowl larger.
By the early 18th century, it developed into a larger straight-sided form with no rouletting around the rim and the bowl perpendicular to the stem. Makers’ marks found on pipes from both the 17th and 18th centuries fall into two main categories, relief and incuse.
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Lauren McMillan. McMillan There are currently three formula dating techniques available to archaeologists studying 17th- and 18th-century colonial sites with imported white, ball-clay, tobacco-pipe stems.
A tobacco pipe, often called simply a pipe, is a device specifically made to smoke tobacco. Stems and bits of tobacco pipes are usually made of moldable materials like Ebonite, Lucite, Bakelite, and soft plastic. Less common Broken fragments of clay pipe can be useful as dating evidence for archaeologists. In the s.
Because the time span of the casemate under study is relatively short about 50 years dating of pipes has been done primarily on the evidence of makers’ marks and names. With the exception of the Dutch bowls, all bowls from which the shape could be deduced appeared to be basically of Oswald’s type 9 Oswald 60, In the New World at least, the export version Oswald’s type 9c and numerous variants and derivatives were universal long after this, and certainly as late as about I. In England, Oswald’s type 10 continued the more traditional features in various forms.
This type continued for most of the 18th century until type 11, a derivative of type 9, became standard and finally set the norm for what is traditionally considered the shape of a British clay pipe. Harrington’s method of dating pipe fragments by bore diameter measurement Harrington was not used in this study, as the relevant Harrington period, , covered virtually the entire occupancy of the area involved.
Binford’s straight-line regression formula based on Harrington’s work Maxwell and Binford ; Binford , however, was applied to the various layers in order to obtain comparative evidence. The order of layers in this casemate from top to bottom runs from Layer 1 to Layer 12, inclusive. No significant pipe material came from Layer 1. In Layer 2 the following material was studied the catalogue number given is the lot number followed by the object no.
Impressed into clay tobacco pipes are bits of data that have fueled endless research avenues since the earliest days of archaeology on historic sites excavated on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Archaeologists analyze multiple clues to date and identify the pipe maker including a careful combination of archaeological site context, bowl style and form, pipe stem bore diameter, style and placement of the mark itself, and place of manufacture.
We ask that if you have a nearly complete bowl from which a type can be determined, to use the Oswald typology, but there is also a field to record reference to another typology, should you prefer. Marks also appear on pipe stems.
pipe fragments recovered were measurable stem frag- ments. The Phase III tobacco pipe dating methods are characterized by the majority (57%%) of.
In the beginning — , maybe the pipes were stamped Mi Reserva my reserve. Later the Reg No was added. This Reg No has nothing to do with shape numbers, but is merely the Castello company trademark. Vulcanite stems used until? This is an interesting question. From early Castello pipe advertising from the Wally Frank and later Hollco Rohr companies it says the pipe comes with Vulcanite stems.
To our knowledge no one has yet seen a Vulcanite stemmed Castello with the faux diamond logo inset. The Sea Rock goes back to the early days. There was an Antiquari not Old Antiquari that was also a Hollco import, and was fume top and rusticated. I think it was only around for a couple of years. White bar, black dot, and faux diamond. The first stem logo was the white bar.
Clay Tobacco-Pipe Research and Historical Archaeology in Germany, a Difficult Relationship
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Some years ago Lewis Binford devised a formula for dating clay pipe stems, does anyone know of the formula? Also, does anyone know how accurate it has.
A tobacco pipe , often called simply a pipe , is a device specifically made to smoke tobacco. It comprises a chamber the bowl for the tobacco from which a thin hollow stem shank emerges, ending in a mouthpiece. Pipes can range from very simple machine-made briar models to highly prized hand-made artisanal implements made by renowned pipemakers, which are often very expensive collector’s items.
Pipe smoking is the oldest known traditional form of tobacco smoking. Some Native American cultures smoke tobacco in ceremonial pipes , and have done so since long before the arrival of Europeans. Other American Indian cultures smoke tobacco socially. Tobacco was introduced to Europe from the Americas in the 16th century and spread around the world rapidly. As tobacco was not introduced to the Old World until the 16th century,  the older pipes outside of the Americas were usually used to smoke various other substances, including hashish , a rare and expensive substance outside areas of the Middle East, Central Asia and India, where it was then produced.
A pipe’s fundamental function is to provide a relatively safe, manipulable volume in which to incompletely combust a smokable substance. Typically this is accomplished by connecting a refractory ‘bowl’ to some sort of ‘stem’ which extends and may also cool the smoke mixture drawn through the combusting organic mass see below. The broad anatomy of a pipe typically comprises mainly the bowl and the stem.
Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History No. 2
Post a Comment. Our heroes Andy and Lance are working the field with metal detectors, rhythmically swinging them back and forth while listening through headphones for telltale pings signaling metal in the ground. Lance carefully puts the ring pull into a plastic baggie.
File fragments of clay pipe stems and three bowl fragments dating to the Post-Medieval period. (FindID ).jpg. Language; Watch · Edit.
The guide even includes an illustrated list of the different kinds of mud , which in its seriousness may be amusing to some! Most locations have either patches or whole banks of shingle, some interspersed with areas of sand, others with areas of mud. For most visitors the fragments of clay tobacco pipe are the most memorable novelties, and a trademark of the Thames foreshore. Pieces of pipe-stem are easy to pick up in certain areas, complete bowls less so.. There are so many fragments, not just because for more than years they were sold filled and routinely chucked when smoked, but also because the hundreds of pipe-makers working along the foreshore would likely ditch their kiln leftovers or rejects into the Thames.
The top pipe bowl above dates from while the one below is a fairly typical decorated one from Oysters have been native to the Thames Estuary since the beginnings of time apparently, and it was only relatively recently that they ceased to be a major food source especially for the poor. The same applies to the animal bones.. On a recent visit to part of Rotherhithe on the opposite side, i. The problem with most of them especially if water-worn.. I mean the coins dropped throughout the millennia back to even before there were pockets; the tokens, some just as old, which were used in place of money; the religious badges or emblems which pilgrims could buy; the many and various tools, including weapons, used on or around the Thames foreshore..
Except perhaps in one respect..