Bricks are so common that we hardly spare them a glance, but in areas of the country with no suitable local building stone, brick has been the most important durable building material since Roman times. Brick is still favoured as the material of choice for many new-build projects, especially housing developments. Despite being renowned for its durability, problems in brickwork can be very serious. They are often caused by subsidence, settlement or bowing, but more commonly are the result of poor or incorrect maintenance. Repointing with the wrong type of mortar, inappropriate cleaning by grit blasting or chemicals, or the application of water-repellent coatings, can all cause problems. This article provides an introduction to the repair and maintenance of traditional and historic brickwork, focussing on solid brickwork constructed with soft, porous lime mortars, as found in preth century buildings and structures.
Bradford unconsidered trifles
Deciding on the date of a brick is a far from simple process. The very first point to remember is that bricks are regularly re-cycled; consequently bricks may well be older than the buildings that contain them. Secondly, any attempt to date British bricks stylistically must allow for regional variations; the size of pre th century bricks, and their arrangement, did not conform to any nationwide standards.
If you want to date your local bricks you will have to get information specific to the county or city that you live in.
With a manufacturing history dating back to the ‘s, Brampton Brick has embraced advancements in technology to become a world-leader in brick and.
Man has used brick for building purpose for thousands of years. Bricks date back to BC, which makes them one of the oldest known building materials. They were discovered in southern Turkey at the site of an ancient settlement around the city of Jericho. The first bricks, made in areas with warm climates, were mud bricks dried in the sun for hardening. Ancient Egyptian bricks were made of clay mixed with straw.
The evidence of this can be seen today at ruins of Harappa Buhen and Mohenjo-daro. Paintings on the tomb walls of Thebes portray Egyptian slaves mixing, tempering and carrying clay for the sun dried bricks. The greatest breakthrough came with the invention of fired brick in about 3, Bc. From this moment on, bricks could be made without the heat of sun and soon became popular in cooler climates.
The Romans prefered to make their bricks in spring, then they stored them for two years before selling or using them.
All You Need to Know About Brick Homes
Our Reclaimed Brick Floor Tiles are sourced from specific parts of Eastern Europe and have been sliced from bricks dating back to the mid 19th century. We choose these reclaimed brick tiles based on their ease of maintenance and hard-wearing nature and are perfect for indoor and outdoor use when correctly sealed. They look great not only in period settings but go well within a contemporary feel too. Ideal for high traffic areas, such as kitchens, restaurants, and churches. A practical tile that only looks better with age.
The earliest known brick structures, dating back to BC in Turkey, featured crudely crafted blocks of clay left to dry in the hot sun until they hardened.
Stone is one of the oldest and most versatile building materials. Its use ranges from providing essential support and protection to sophisticated embellishments. There is an enormous range of different stones, methods of working and uses, all of which contribute to our architectural heritage. Approaches to caring for stonework have changed over time and continue to evolve as we learn more about the material and the way it interacts with its environment.
The essence of good in-situ restoration is that the repair should have the appearance of natural stone and be less dense than the substrate. It should be neatly squared off and have the same texture as the adjacent stonework. It is always advisable to clean the stonework prior to restoration, and a repair that has been carried out professionally should last for many years. Prior to the commencement of works it is important to establish the cause of the deterioration.
These could be inherent in the structure, structural problems caused by movement, or environmentally related. Once the cause has been established, and an assessment and diagnosis undertaken the correct conservation needs can be determined and agreed upon. Fired brick was introduced to England by the Romans, but production disappeared at the end of their occupation. Unfortunately relatively few of the structures they built survive today.
However, brick buildings dating back to the middle ages can still be found in some parts of England today. Up to the 16 th century, brick was regarded as a prestigious material and used exclusively for high status buildings.
Researching Historic Buildings in the British Isles
Dating buildings is important for survey reports: particularly for conservation appraisals, archaeological assessments, and for predicting age-related latent defects, such as Georgian ‘snapped-header’ walls, inter- wars ‘Regent Street Disease’, or post-war high-alumina cement concrete deterioration1. When a building is original, and typical of its period, its age can usually be judged by its external appearance alone.
Every era has its distinctive architectural styles, ranging from wavy roofs of the s, to bow-backed Georgian terraces of the s.
Flemish bond is a frustrating misnomer because this brick bond is not native to Flanders or even nearby sections of France and Holland. However, it does appear on late medieval buildings in scattered areas of northern and central Europe, particularly Poland. In contrast to English bond, garden wall bond, or even haphazard bonds, which are functional bonds, Flemish bond is a decorative bond, one that lends visual quality to a wall surface.
The discussion below focuses mainly on the use of Flemish bond in Virginia since many well-preserved early examples remain there. And admittedly, I am more familiar with Virginia brickwork than that in other states. The subject is an extensive one and space in this blog limits me to highlights.
Stonework & Brickwork Restoration
As per the Building Code of Australia, non-habitable areas ie. Please be advised the Builder is not required to seal these areas and therefore falls under Homeowner Maintenance to address. To alleviate this problem may we suggest you purchase brick sealant from your local hardware store and apply accordingly to keep moisture and dampness to a minimum.
These stains are not harmful and are part of the natural by-product of some bricks. Staining may gradually dissipate on external surfaces subject to weathering or it can either be removed by proprietary brands or common caustic soda solution.
Historic Brickwork: A Design Resource. Please be aware that the information provided on this page may be out of date, brickwork otherwise inaccurate due.
Adobe bricks mud bricks are made of earth with a fairly high clay content and straw. If produced manually the earth mix is cast in open moulds onto the ground and then left to dry out. Adobe bricks are only sun-dried, not kiln-fired. When used for construction they are laid up into a wall using an earth mortar. Before drying out, the finished walls are smoothed down.
Often a clay render is applied as a surface coating. Adobe brick building is an ancient technique common in the Americas and the Middle East.
Historic Brickwork: A Design Resource
Brickwork is masonry produced by a bricklayer , using bricks and mortar. Typically, rows of bricks called courses   are laid on top of one another to build up a structure such as a brick wall. Bricks may be differentiated from blocks by size. For example, in the UK a brick is defined as a unit having dimensions less than Brick is a popular medium for constructing buildings, and examples of brickwork are found through history as far back as the Bronze Age.
Bricks are so common that we hardly spare them a glance, but in areas of the country with no suitable local building stone, brick has been the most important.
Bricks and concrete blocks are some of the oldest and most reliable of building products. Bricks were first used 5, years ago and were made from dirt using straw as a binder. Later bricks were made from clay and fired in a kiln to increase their durability. The history of concrete blocks dates back to ancient Greece and Rome, although they were not manufactured commercially until the early 20th century. Dating old brick and block is not a precise science, but there are a few things to look for.
Examine the surface of the brick.
History of Brick Masonry in NYC
A date may appear on a datestone over the door, or on particular items, such as lead drainpipes, or materials such as bricks, which may have.
Chelsea Window. Sash set back with thick frame visible, likely dated Source: Le Lay Architects. Picture a sash window in your mind and it is probably set in brickwork; likely soot-stained yellow stock bricks or Victorian reds. Whist the sash window was introduced just after the Medieval period where timber frame houses prevailed, today you will seldom see an original sliding sash set into a timber building. The reason for this dates back to Just a year before, tall timber-framed, jettied houses overhung the narrow streets of London.
As the population grew, space within the city walls became cramped with storey built upon storey, creating an overlapping line of combustible homes. The building of houses out of timber and thatch was eradicated following the Great Fire when Charles II introduced the Rebuilding of London Act requiring all future buildings to be built in brick or stone.
How to Date Bricks & Cement Blocks
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Very brief introduction to brickwork. Bricks and Brickwork in the Period Home · House dating guide (on above site); Illustrated information on solid brick walls.
Please be aware that the information provided on this page may be out of date, brickwork otherwise inaccurate due dating the brickwork of time. For more detail, see our Archive and Deletion Policy. Few of us spend much time thinking about the physical construction of buildings. But brickwork can convey much information about historical changes in building dating and materials. Also, although not an infallible indication, different types of brickwork trifles bradford us to date the construction of a building.
For instance, English Bond, which is characterised by a row of stretchers long sides alternating with a row of headers short brickwork , became common in the s and was the standard type of brickwork for British houses for almost three centuries. Because it was renowned unconsidered its strength, it remained popular decay industrial buildings right through to the end of the dating century.
Brickwork is also a measure of craft skills, so the more complex the patterns, the more skilled the worker. Indeed, the more finely crafted the brickwork, the more expensive a building would have been to build, so houses with particularly detailed and complicated brickwork unconsidered more likely to be occupied by the well-to-do. Above the window we can see a history brick arch in gauged brickwork.
Flemish Bond: A Hallmark of Traditional Architecture
Brick-work is so common that we don’t give it a second thought. What could be less interesting than a brick, you might think! But brickwork evolved to meet the needs of society, and over the centuries it has continually responded to changing needs, technology and fashions. The Romans had bricks, but they were very different from what we think of as a brick today.
Brickwork as we know it was imported from the low countries in the middle ages. The history told by brickwork is all around us.
Graves lined with brick and covered with a brick arch are common are grouped into four periods based on date and presence of dating of brick-lined graves.
Prized for its classical appeal, durability, and low maintenance, brick is among the most desired types of exterior siding. The earliest known brick structures, dating back to BC in Turkey, featured crudely crafted blocks of clay left to dry in the hot sun until they hardened. Sun-baked bricks remained the norm until ancient Romans, around BC, began firing clay bricks in earthen kilns, which greatly increased their structural integrity.
The bricks are then fired at a high temperature, resulting in strong bricks of uniform size. Houses with thick brick walls were common in Europe from the 14th Century up until a few hundred years ago, when they were gradually replaced with wood-framed walls. Because transporting bricks over long distances was cost-prohibitive, solid brick wall construction was mainly limited to regions were bricks were manufactured and easily accessible. Early brick wall construction in Colonial America often featured double brick walls, stacked a few inches apart, but parallel to each other, and then the gap between was filled with small rocks and rubble to create a thick wall that was strong enough to support a second story or overhead roof.